Category Archives: 7 Wonders Of The World

The Mystery of “Unknown Man E”. Is Murderous Son of Ramesses III?

unknown man e

Pentawer (Unknown Man E):

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Pentawer (or Pentaweret) was an ancient Egyptian prince of the 20th dynasty, a son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. He was involved in the so-called “harem conspiracy“, a plot to kill his father and place Pentawer on the throne. He either killed himself or was executed following the assassination attempt.

Conspiracy:

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Pentawer was to be the beneficiary of the harem conspiracy, probably initiated by his mother Tiye to assassinate the pharaoh. Tiye wanted her son to succeed the pharaoh, even though the chosen heir was a son of the chief queen Iset Ta-Hemdjert. According to the Judicial Papyrus of Turin Pentawer was among those who were made to stand trial for their participation in the conspiracy. It is likely that he was forced to kill himself. The papyrus refers to this laconically:

They [i.e. the judges] left him in his place, he took his own life.

Historian Susan Redford speculates that Pentawer, being a noble, was given the option to kill himself by taking poison and so be spared the humiliating fate of some of the other conspirators who would have been burned alive with their ashes strewn in the streets. Such punishment served to make a strong example since it emphasized the gravity of their treason for ancient Egyptians who believed that one could only attain an afterlife if one’s body was mummified and preserved — rather than being destroyed by fire.

“We found this mummy is covered in sheepskin,” said Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities and a National GeographicExplorer-in-Residence.

“In the mind of the ancient Egyptian. … To cover with sheepskin means he was not clean, he did something [bad] in his life,” Hawass added.

Pentewere could have been sentenced to death by poison, after the murderous plans were revealed, according to Hawass and Brier.

The Unknown Man E was found without a grave marking, which would have prevented him from reaching the afterlife—a possible additional punishment for being part of a murder plot.

However, the denial of an afterlife contradicts careful mummification—something usually reserved for celebrated members of society, said Brier.

Desperate Attempt

Brier, a mummification expert, believes the Unknown Man E was mummified quickly because he did not have his brain or internal organs removed, nor was he completely dehydrated. Additionally, crude methods were used for his mummification.

“[Resin] is normally introduced into the cranium after removing the brain,” he explained. But in the case of the Screaming Mummy, new research has shown that resin was poured down the corpse’s throat.

“That’s kind of a half-hearted or desperate attempt,” Brier said.

So why wasn’t the body simply disposed of without mummification? An influential person could have cared about the body and made sure it was at least hastily mummified, rather than thrown away.

MUMMIES OF THE WORLD_Kapl

EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS

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The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. As of November 2008, there are sources citing both 118 and 138 as the number of identified Egyptian pyramids. Most were built as tombs for the country’s pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.

Most famous pyramids:

The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built. The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Number and location of pyramids:

In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of pyramids – see Lepsius list of pyramids – in which he counted 67. A great many more have since been discovered. As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.

Abu Rawash:

Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt’s most northerly pyramid (other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one) the mostly ruinedPyramid of Djedefre, son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaeological consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure, which would have placed it among the half-dozen or so largest pyramids in Egypt.

Giza:

Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the “Great Pyramid” and the “Pyramid of Cheops”); the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren); the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices known as “Queen’s pyramids”; and the Great Sphinx.

The Giza Necropolis has been a popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

Zawyet el-Aryan:

This site, halfway between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure’s owner is believed to be pharaoh Nebka, while the southern structure, known as the Layer Pyramid, may be attributable to the Third Dynasty pharaoh Khaba, a close successor of Sekhemkhet.

Abu Sir:

There are a total of fourteen pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty.

The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre, which is also the best preserved, Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. Most of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built similar construction techniques, comprising a rubble core surrounded by steps of mud bricks with a limestone outer casing. The largest of these 5th Dynasty pyramids, the Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai, is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some 70 m (230 ft) high and then later transformed into a “true” pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.

Saqqara:

Major pyramids located here include the Step Pyramid of Djoser – generally identified as the world’s oldest substantial monumental structure to be built of dressed stone – the Pyramid of Userkaf, the Pyramid of Teti and the Pyramid of Merikare, dating to the First Intermediate Period. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway that is one of the best-preserved in Egypt. Together with the pyramid of Userkaf, this pyramid was the subject of one of the earliest known restoration attempts, conducted byKhaemweset, a son of Ramesses II.

5 Most Remote Places In Human Civilization

5 most remote places

1-Mêdog County, China

Is a county of the Nyingtri Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of People’s Republic of China. Chinese claims include parts of Arunachal Pradesh, south of the McMahon Line, what was casus belli for the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
Medog has a favourable climate caused by the relatively low elevations in parts of the county (down to just 600 m above sea level in the Yarlung Zangbo river valley)

The area is lush and covered with trees and includes the Medog National Animal and Plant Reserve Area. It has more than 3,000 species of plants, 42 species of rare animals under special state protection, and over a thousand hexapod species.
Mêdog used to be the last county without a permanent road access in China, due to the landscape of being surrounded by several high-elevation mountain ranges. A first, simple road was built in 1970s, nevertheless it was usually blocked by ice and snow on the mountains in the winter, made it only a seasonal access. In December 2010, the Chinese government announced a project of renovating the road into a permanent highway from Bomê to Mêdog County,[2] including excavation of a new tunnel under the mountain range. The renovation was completed in 2013.

2-Alert, Canada

Remote Places Alert Canada

Alert, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world, 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.Its permanent population was reported as zero in the 2011 census, but military and scientific personnel on rotation were present. It takes its name from HMS Alert, which wintered 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the present station, off what is now Cape Sheridan,

Alert has many temporary inhabitants as it hosts a military signals intelligenceradio receiving facility at Canadian Forces Station Alert (CFS Alert), as well as a co-located Environment Canada weather station, a Global Atmosphere Watch(GAW) atmosphere monitoring laboratory, and the Alert Airport. Shortly after the end of World War II, Charles J. Hubbard began to rouse interest in the United States and Canada for the establishment of a network ofArctic stations. His plan, in broad perspective, envisaged the establishment of two main stations, one in Greenland and the other within the Archipelago, which could be reached by sea supply. These main stations would then serve as advance bases from which a number of smaller stations would be established by air.

3-Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world, lying 2,000 kilometres from the nearest inhabited land, Saint Helena, 2,400 kilometres from the nearest continental land, South Africa, and 3,360 kilometres from South America. The territory consists of the main island, also named Tristan da Cunha, which has a north–south length of 11.27 kilometres and has an area of 98 square kilometres, along with the smaller, uninhabited Nightingale Islands and the wildlife reserves of Inaccessibleand Gough Islands.Tristan da Cunha is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. This includes Saint Helena and equatorialAscension Island some 3,730 kilometres to the north of Tristan. The island has a population of 301 as of September 2015.

4-McMurdo Station, Antarctica

Located quite literally at the bottom of the world, Antarctica is naturally one of the most remote places on Earth. Though there are no permanent residents in the frozen region, the continent does house seasonal researchers and scientist.
The McMurdo Station, located on the northern tip of Antarctica, is the most populated research centers, with close to 1,200 scientists working in the area. Though extremely isolated from neighboring countries, there are three airstrips in McMurdo, which means the inhabitants can easily access the region, as well as many modern amenities.

5-Ittoqqortoormiit, Greenland

If you think the name is hard to pronounce, try being one of the 500 people living in this desolate area. The village is located on the eastern shore of Greenland and is just north of Iceland. Greenland’s the one with all the ice, so the water surrounding the town are frozen almost year-round, making access to the region via boat near impossible. Furthermore, the small airport on the island rarely hosts flights.
The majority of the population lives off hunting and fishing, with polar bears and whales the most commonly hunted animals.

 

Christ The Redemeer Statue Rio De Janeiro-Brazil|Mehak Iqbal

CHRIST THE REDEEMER STATUE RIO DE JANEIRO

Christ the Redeemer is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. It lies high on the Corcovado Mountain overlooking Rio with his arms outstretched in benediction. It was completed in 1931 and stands about 130 ft (39 m) tall and the arms measure 98 ft (30 m) across. It has become a symbol of the city and of the warmth of the Brazilian people, who receive visitors with open arms. The statue is the largest Art Deco-style sculpture in the world. It is one of the world’s best known monuments and was built as a symbol of Brazilian Christianity. In 1850, the idea of building a religious monument was first suggested by a Catholic Priest. It was designed by Brazilian Heitor da Silva Costa and created by French sculptor Paul Landowski. It wasn’t until 1920 when a group petitioned for support to build a landmark statue that it became a reality. The design was chosen from several ideas and construction began in the 1920s, taking nine years to finish. It was completed and inaugurated in 1931.

SOME AMAZING FACTS ABOUT CHRIST-THE REDEEMER:

  • It is located in the Tijuca Forest National Forest.
  • The statue weighs approximately 635 tones.
  • The statue is considered an icon of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil.
  • Christ the Redeemer is the 5th largest statue of Jesus.
  • The materials used to build Christ the Redeemer were reinforced in a physical form and soapstone.
  • The money to build Christ the Redeemer came from Brazil’s Catholic community.
  • The chosen statue is meant to show that Christ loves all and will embrace all that come to him by statue’s open arms.
  • The statue was officially opened on October 12, 1931.
  • It was impossible to construct the statue in a single step so it was first constructed in pieces and then was carried to the top of the moutain and set upright.
  • The statue is build from the stones which were brought by Sweden.
  • The idea that how the statue should look like was chosen from several designs like one was a depiction of the Christian cross. Another was a statue of Jesus holding a globe, while standing over a pedestal that was to symbolize the world.
  • Once this statue was alsi deliberately destroyed by a housepainter who sprayed head and right arm with graffiti but later the culprit was identified.
  • Its restoration work was conducted through an agreement among several organizations.
  • The statue was struck by lightning during a violent thunderstorm on February 10, 2008, and suffered some damage to the fingers, head and eyebrows.

christ the redeemer statue reconstruction

At night the statue is lit up and seemingly hovers over the city as the mountain it stands on is dark. If it is cloudy the clouds light up and the effect can be quite spectacular and extremely delicate.
To reach the statue people take the cog train to the top of mountain. This train enables us to experience some spectacular views if you sit on the right hand side.
Taxis can also help us in a great way to visit the statue and if there is more than one of us it should be easy to obtain or bring about the fee, for a return trip and waiting time. Taxi would also work out much cheaper than the cog train.

Collected And Prepared By Mehak Iqbal

The Roman Colosseum – Rome, Italy |Mehak Iqbal

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The Colosseum or Coliseum is today the most recognizable of Rome‘s Classical buildings. Even 2,000 years after it was built, and despite centuries when the abandoned building was pillaged for building materials, it is instantly recognizable It was the first permanent amphitheater to be raised in Rome, and the most impressive arena the Classical world had yet seen. And with accommodation for 60,000 seated and 10,000 standing, all of whom could enter and leave in a matter of minutes, courtesy of 80 entrances, this is a structure that the designers of modern sports sadist could learn from.  The Colosseum was built for several reasons:

– As a gift to Roman Citizens, increasing the popularity of the Flavian dynasty.
-Staging various forms of entertainment in a purpose built stone amphitheatre, creating a diversion for unemployed and unruly Plebs.
-To utilize and showcase the latest Roman engineering techniques demonstrating to the world the power of Rome.

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FACTS ABOUT THE ROMAN COLOSSEUM:
1. The Colosseum was built by Emperor Vespasian, founder of the Flavian dynasty, for Titus, his successor.
2. Colosseum is an elliptical building measuring 189 meters long and 156 meters wide
3. The Colosseum has over 80 entrances and can accommodate about 50,000 spectators.
4. The original name of the Coliseum was Flavian Amphitheater, after the Flavian Dynasty of Emperors.
5. The Colosseum in Italy only took 9 years to build using over 60,000 Jewish slaves.
6. The great amphitheatre covers and area of 6 acres.
7. The Colosseum is located in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy (Piazzale del Colosseo, Rome). The absolute location is 41 degrees latitude and 12 degrees longitude.
8. Festivals as well as games could last up to 100 days in the Coliseum.
9. It is estimated that the games played in the Colosseum for hundreds of years have taken the lives of about 500,000 people and over a million wild animals.
10. The area beneath the Colosseum was called the Hypogeum
11. There were 36 trap doors in Arena allowing for elaborate special effects.
12. Many natural disasters devastated the structure of the Colosseum, but it was the earthquakes of 847 AD and 1231 AD that caused most of the damage you see today.
13. During the inaugural games of the Colosseum in 80 CE held by Titus, some 9,000 wild animals were slaughtered.
14. There were over 20 different types of Gladiators.
Colosseum was built near the giant statue of Colossus which was part of the Nero’s Park. The current name was derived from the statue of Colossus.
15. 42 Roman Emperors witnessed the carnage at the amphitheatre.
16. The total amount of marbles used for the construction of the Colosseum was estimated at 100,000 cubic meters.

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By the 20th century, a combination of weather, natural disasters, neglect and vandalism had destroyed nearly two-thirds of the original Colosseum, including all of the arena’s marble seats and its decorative elements. Restoration efforts began in the 1990s, and have proceeded over the years, as the Colosseum continues to be a leading attraction for tourists from all over the world. Millions of people each year flock to this majestic structure in hopes to get some sense to what it was like to live during the Ancient Roman times. Tourists also believe that its an unforgettable experience to visit the Colloseum.

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Collected And Prepared By Mehak Iqbal