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13 Muslim Inventions & Discoveries To Modern The World In Islamic Age

Muslim Scientist And Their 1001 Inventions & Discoveries

1~ Coffee

An Arab named Khalid in kaffa in  southern Ethiopia was one day grazing goats and observed that his goats became more energetic and much livelier than before after some time. After further inspection, he found out that this energetic behavior was because of certain berries that his goat grazed. He later boiled those berries to make the first coffee.

The first historical record of the drink was made when beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen were used by Sufis to stay awake as a sign of religious devotion on special occasions.

By the late 15th century it had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. But it wasn’t until the 16th century that coffee beans came to Europe. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named “Pasqua Rosee” who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.

The Arabic word “qahwa” became the Turkish “kahve” then the Italian “caffé” and then English “coffee”.

2~ Optics

We all know about Ibn-al-Haitham from our primary and secondary school books, as he was a great Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist of the 10th century.

The Greeks used to think that light leaves the eye like a laser, but Ibn-al-Haitham was the first person to realize that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it. He proved that humans see objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eye.

He invented the first pinhole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture.

The word ‘camera’ as we know today is basically derived from the word Qamara, The same qamara we use for our rooms in Urdu, because he made the pinhole camera in a dark room.

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3~ Universitites

A young princess named Fatima Al-Firhi in 859 founded the first degree-granting university in Fez, Morocco.

Fatima and her sister Miriam wanted to expand it that is why they founded an adjacent mosque and together the complex became the “Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University”.

Still operating for almost 1,200 years by now, this should also be noted that the center reflects the core belief that the quest for knowledge is close to the heart of Muslims and is the core of the Islamic tradition.

The story of the Al-Firhi sisters continues to inspire young Muslim women around the world. It also stresses the fact that Islam does not restrict women from acquiring knowledge.

4~ Surgery

Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbad al-Zahrawi”, a man known in the West as Abulcasis, was the first surgeon in human history.

During the 10th century, he wrote “Al-Tadrif”, his medical encyclopedia which included a treatise called “On Surgery”. This held a staggering collection of knowledge which included his scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised.

Those instruments are still in use by modern surgeons today.

All of those illustrations were used in Europe as a medical reference for the next 500 years.

5~ Hospitals

The first Medical Center of its kind, with wards, beds, nurses, etc was the “Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital” (named for the founder of the Tulunid dynasty). It was founded in 872 in Cairo.

Tulun hospital provided free care for anyone who needed it, a policy based on the Muslim tradition of caring for all who are sick. From Cairo, such hospitals spread around the Muslim world.

All patients received free health care, a Muslim tradition which was institutionalized with the advent of the hospital.

Slightly more basic hospitals had existed prior to this in Baghdad. But it was the Cairo model which would later serve as the template for hospitals all around the globe.

6~ Algebra

Students struggling through math classes may not particularly appreciate this Muslim invention but it is one of the most important contributions of the Muslim Golden Age to the modern world.

The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian and Greek in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians Al-Khwarizmi and Al-Kindi around 825.

The word algebra comes from the name of Al Khwarizmi’s book “Al-jabr”, meaning “completion”.

He even solved the real-world problems such as zakat calculation and inheritance division. A unique aspect of his reasoning for developing algebra was the desire to make calculations mandated by Islamic law easier to complete in a world without calculators and computers.

The work of Muslim mathematician scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci.

7~ Windmill

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The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph. Initially electricity wasn’t made from these windmills instead they were used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation.

In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. These mills had 6 or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves.

It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

8~ Vaccinations

As even taught in secondary school books, that the technique of inoculation was invented by Jenner and Pasteur is wrong. It was actually the Muslims who first devised the technique, which was later brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador in 1724.

Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

9~ Rocket and Torpedo

Though the Chinese invented saltpeter gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate and can later be used for military use as a weapon.

Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo, a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

10~ Earth Is a Sphere

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By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. Astronomer Ibn Hazm as a proof said that, “the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth” due to which it must be in sphere shape.

It was 500 years before that realization dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km – less than 200km out.

11~ Fountain pen

On the demand of sultan of Egypt, the fountain pen was invented in 953. As he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes and a pen which didn’t needed an inkpot with it, instead it should carry the ink in its body.

Later a fountain pen was designed. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

12~ Shampoo

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Washing and bathing are religious practice and is a requirement for Muslims to pray, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. Hazrat Saalih (A.S) is known to have invented soap as we know today.

The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil.

Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

13~ Parachute

A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas was the first person to make real attempts to construct a flying machine and fly.

In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts.  He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first “parachute”, and leaving him with only minor injuries.

But his dreams of flying couldn’t let him sleep in peace for which, In 875 at the age of 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. This time he designed a winged apparatus, roughly resembling a bird costume. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for about ten minutes but crashed on landing, later it was concluded that it happened because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.

His designs would undoubtedly have been an inspiration for famed Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci’s hundreds of years later.

Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

Muslims have a big contributions in chemistry known as Al-Chemya

Eat 2 Banana’s In A Day That Give Change In Your Body

 

Bananas are perhaps one of nature’s most under-rated fruits. The yellow skinned fruits are easy to overlook, especially when it seems as if there’s always some new and exotic type of fruit that’s being touted as the next big thing.

However, the fact remains that bananas are a tasty super food that can give our bodies all the good stuff it needs to thrive. They’re packed full of nutrients, vitamins, fiber, and all-natural sugars, like sucrose and fructose. That’s part of the reason why eating bananas regularly can help to keep the doctor away.

 

However, the more dark patches a banana appears to have, the more ripe it is, and the more TNF it contains. TNF stands for Tumor Necrosis Factor, and it’s a cancer fighting substance that helps fight against abnormal cells in our bodies. Specifically, TNF helps to assist communication between cells in our immune response system and it guides the movement of cells towards areas in our bodies which are inflamed or infected. Research has confirmed that the TNF found in ripe bananas interferes with tumor cells growth and inhibits them from spreading by causing cell death, or apoptosis.

In the United States bananas are the top most consumed fruit and Americans eat more of them every year than apples and oranges combined. Many of us bring home a bunch of bananas from the store and eat them throughout the week. They start off mostly greenish-yellow and spotless, but as time goes by, the bananas continuously ripen. Eventually they begin to develop brown spots, which grow bigger and bigger until the entire banana is covered in brown. Many people are turned off by brown bananas and think it means they’re rotten so they toss them out. It makes sense, most fruits that turn brown are indeed rotten and unappetizing.

 

-Blood Pressure- Bananas help to lower blood pressure and protect against stroke or heart attack because they are low in sodium and high in potassium, making them a heart healthy food.

– Depression- They can help overcome depression because they have high levels of tryptophan, which our bodies convert into serotonin. Serotonin is a brain neurotransmitter that makes people relax, feel happy, and improves mood. Thus, bananas can help people feel better and beat depression.

– Ulcers- When you suffer from stomach ulcers many foods are off limits, but bananas can be eaten without having to worry about whether or not they’ll cause pain. That’s because their smooth, soft, mushy texture coats the stomach lining and protects it against corrosive acids and irritation.

– Anemia- They can help those with anemia by providing much needed dietary iron, which stimulates red blood cell and hemoglobin production and strengthens the blood supply.

– Temperature Control- Eating a banana on a hot day can cool you off by lowering your body temperature. The same is true for it you have a fever.

 

 

Haiku Stairs (Stairway to Heaven). The island of Oʻahu, Hawaii

Haiku Stairs:

The Haʻikū Stairs, also known as the Stairway to Heaven or Haʻikū Ladder, is a steep hiking trail on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii. The total 3,922 steps span along Oahu’s Ko’olau mountain range.

“The Stairway To Heaven” — is one of the most extreme and beautiful hikes Hawaii (and America) has to offer.

For the past 26 years, the hike up the 4,000-step ladder has also been illegal, but that hasn’t stopped people — dozens a day — from making the trek up and down the steel steps that were once operated by the Coast Guard to catch a glimpse of the view at the top of Puu Keahi a Kahoe on the island of Oahu.The stepladder was built in 1943 during World War II to “provide access to buildings at the top of the ridge, used as transmission stations,” according to a tourism site called Best Places Hawaii. 

The ladder scales “nearly vertical” heights over 2,500 feet from Haiku Valley to the top of Puu Keahi a Kahoe, so high that there are points in the hike where the peaks rise above clouds.

It was a popular hiking trail in the 1980s, operated by the coast guard, Though the hike is illegal, tourists (and some locals) attempt to scale the Stairway To Heaven every day.The Honolulu Board of Water Supply, The Huffington Post reports, “has jurisdiction over the hike and requires that anyone who goes up it sign waivers and present a $1 million liability insurance policy.”

In early 2013, a group formed to petition the city to reopen the stairs to the public, but the stairs remain closed.

The best picturegraphy of haiku staires (stairway to  heaven):

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Oymyakon, Russia The Coldest Village on Earth

Oymyakon is a Russian rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River, 30 kilometers northwest of Tomtor on theKolyma Highway. Oymyakon is one of the coldest permanently inhabited locales on the planet.

Name History:

It is named after the Oymyakon River, whose name reportedly comes from the Even word kheium, meaning “unfrozen patch of water; place where fish spend the winter.However, another source states that the Even word (kheium may be a misspelling) means “frozen lake”.

Physiography:

Oymyakon, population 500, is in eastern Yakutia at approximately 750 meters above sea level. At the village’s northerly position, day length varies from three hours in December to 21 hours in June.

First are there outside any animals at such a cold temperature?

If you mean domestic animals, in Oymyakon some keep watchdogs outside so to protect the private territory. In this case dogs stay in warm kennels with felt layers. If farm animals like cattles and poultries, they are kept in a special barns. If wild, hunters say they may meet elks, deer, raindeer, hares. Bears, as you know, sleep in the winter.

)-And how many tourists or non-inhabitants?

A dozen of tourists per month, perhaps.

)-How can you travel on long distances? Are the roads usable for cars?

Locals prefer to travel by cars. Cheap, you know. Round trip by plane may costs 400-500 USD depending on distance.

)-Are there functioning mobil phone service?

Only in cities and the administrative centers of republic’s regions.

Coldest Village On Earth

Walnuts Vs Cancer! Best For Cancer is Walnuts|Nayab Khan

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Walnuts Can Slow Down Cancer

A small amount of Walnuts a day can slow the growth of tumours by reducing blood supply to the tumour, noticeably slowing down its growth.

Close up of walnuts being cracked

Walnuts

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Black walnuts are American natives, but English walnuts have become one of the most popular nuts in the United States. Although all nuts fit into a cancer-preventive diet, walnuts are most studied for cancer. They contain the omega-3 fat – alpha-linolenic acid – which can make walnuts more susceptible to becoming rancid. That’s why you won’t find them in most commercial nut mixes.

Walnuts contain Omger-3 fatty acids and they can help slow the spread of cancer tumours.

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Doctor Christos Mantzoros of Harvard Medical School carried out a first of its kind study to observe the impact of walnuts on micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNA), which control how genes mold to environmental factors.

‘Our research demonstrates that a walnut diet causes significant changes in the expression profile of miRNAs in colorectal cancer tissue.’ said Doctor Mantzoros.

Compounds in walnuts cause more Omega-3 fatty acids to assemble in tumour cells, he added.

Researchers fed a group of mice with 57gram of walnuts per day for humans and second group of mice was fed a controlled diet without walnuts.

After 25 days researchers found out that, mice with walnuts in their diet had miRNA that affects cancer cell swelling, blood supply and rapid increase.

The tumours of mice were fed with diet consisting of walnuts were found to have 10 times the amount of total Omega-3 fatty acids compared to the mouse that were fed with controlled diet with no walnuts.

.However, the studies were conducted on lab animals the results may vary in the case of human subjects.

The study published in the Jouranl of Nutritional Biochemistry.

Bowel cancer or colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the world and after lungs cancer it is the second leading cause of death in Western Countries.

In Birtian 41,581 people were identified with bowel cancer in 2011 and in the coming year 16,187 people died from the disease.

In US, the American Cancer Society estimated that there will be 132,700 new cases of bowel cancer in 2015 and it will cause 49,700 deaths.

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Collected And Prepared By Nayab Khan