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13 Muslim Inventions & Discoveries To Modern The World In Islamic Age

Muslim Scientist And Their 1001 Inventions & Discoveries

1~ Coffee

An Arab named Khalid in kaffa in  southern Ethiopia was one day grazing goats and observed that his goats became more energetic and much livelier than before after some time. After further inspection, he found out that this energetic behavior was because of certain berries that his goat grazed. He later boiled those berries to make the first coffee.

The first historical record of the drink was made when beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen were used by Sufis to stay awake as a sign of religious devotion on special occasions.

By the late 15th century it had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. But it wasn’t until the 16th century that coffee beans came to Europe. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named “Pasqua Rosee” who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.

The Arabic word “qahwa” became the Turkish “kahve” then the Italian “caffé” and then English “coffee”.

2~ Optics

We all know about Ibn-al-Haitham from our primary and secondary school books, as he was a great Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist of the 10th century.

The Greeks used to think that light leaves the eye like a laser, but Ibn-al-Haitham was the first person to realize that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it. He proved that humans see objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eye.

He invented the first pinhole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture.

The word ‘camera’ as we know today is basically derived from the word Qamara, The same qamara we use for our rooms in Urdu, because he made the pinhole camera in a dark room.


3~ Universitites

A young princess named Fatima Al-Firhi in 859 founded the first degree-granting university in Fez, Morocco.

Fatima and her sister Miriam wanted to expand it that is why they founded an adjacent mosque and together the complex became the “Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University”.

Still operating for almost 1,200 years by now, this should also be noted that the center reflects the core belief that the quest for knowledge is close to the heart of Muslims and is the core of the Islamic tradition.

The story of the Al-Firhi sisters continues to inspire young Muslim women around the world. It also stresses the fact that Islam does not restrict women from acquiring knowledge.

4~ Surgery

Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbad al-Zahrawi”, a man known in the West as Abulcasis, was the first surgeon in human history.

During the 10th century, he wrote “Al-Tadrif”, his medical encyclopedia which included a treatise called “On Surgery”. This held a staggering collection of knowledge which included his scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised.

Those instruments are still in use by modern surgeons today.

All of those illustrations were used in Europe as a medical reference for the next 500 years.

5~ Hospitals

The first Medical Center of its kind, with wards, beds, nurses, etc was the “Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital” (named for the founder of the Tulunid dynasty). It was founded in 872 in Cairo.

Tulun hospital provided free care for anyone who needed it, a policy based on the Muslim tradition of caring for all who are sick. From Cairo, such hospitals spread around the Muslim world.

All patients received free health care, a Muslim tradition which was institutionalized with the advent of the hospital.

Slightly more basic hospitals had existed prior to this in Baghdad. But it was the Cairo model which would later serve as the template for hospitals all around the globe.

6~ Algebra

Students struggling through math classes may not particularly appreciate this Muslim invention but it is one of the most important contributions of the Muslim Golden Age to the modern world.

The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian and Greek in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians Al-Khwarizmi and Al-Kindi around 825.

The word algebra comes from the name of Al Khwarizmi’s book “Al-jabr”, meaning “completion”.

He even solved the real-world problems such as zakat calculation and inheritance division. A unique aspect of his reasoning for developing algebra was the desire to make calculations mandated by Islamic law easier to complete in a world without calculators and computers.

The work of Muslim mathematician scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci.

7~ Windmill


The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph. Initially electricity wasn’t made from these windmills instead they were used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation.

In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. These mills had 6 or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves.

It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

8~ Vaccinations

As even taught in secondary school books, that the technique of inoculation was invented by Jenner and Pasteur is wrong. It was actually the Muslims who first devised the technique, which was later brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador in 1724.

Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

9~ Rocket and Torpedo

Though the Chinese invented saltpeter gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate and can later be used for military use as a weapon.

Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo, a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

10~ Earth Is a Sphere


By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. Astronomer Ibn Hazm as a proof said that, “the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth” due to which it must be in sphere shape.

It was 500 years before that realization dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km – less than 200km out.

11~ Fountain pen

On the demand of sultan of Egypt, the fountain pen was invented in 953. As he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes and a pen which didn’t needed an inkpot with it, instead it should carry the ink in its body.

Later a fountain pen was designed. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

12~ Shampoo


Washing and bathing are religious practice and is a requirement for Muslims to pray, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. Hazrat Saalih (A.S) is known to have invented soap as we know today.

The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil.

Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

13~ Parachute

A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas was the first person to make real attempts to construct a flying machine and fly.

In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts.  He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first “parachute”, and leaving him with only minor injuries.

But his dreams of flying couldn’t let him sleep in peace for which, In 875 at the age of 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. This time he designed a winged apparatus, roughly resembling a bird costume. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for about ten minutes but crashed on landing, later it was concluded that it happened because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.

His designs would undoubtedly have been an inspiration for famed Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci’s hundreds of years later.

Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

Muslims have a big contributions in chemistry known as Al-Chemya

Fresh Mint, Valued For Its Medicinal & Fresh-Smelling Fragrance.

Fresh Mint, An Aromatic Plant. Valued For Its Medicinal & Fresh-Smelling Fragrance.

Insects are the most numerous species on Earth. In fact, there are over 200 million insects living on our planet right now. They are arthropods whose body is divided into parts and covered in exoskeleton that can grow into a shell. They also have specialized extremities, antennas, and often, wings. They are mostly small, except the beetles that are of major size.


There’s a wide spectrum of insect species, some of which feed on plants, while others on meat.

Although we mostly see them as harmful, they are actually very important for maintaining the biological cycle of nature.

Here we present a completely safe method of getting rid of insects and rodents. It’s nothing like the insecticides you buy over the counter, but it’s equally, if not more efficient.

This all-natural repellent will also make your home smell clean and fresh.

What you need is fresh mint, an aromatic plant that’s valued both for its medicinal properties and fresh-smelling fragrance.


The method of preparation couldn’t be simpler. What you do is prepare a well-concentrated mint tea. Store this in a spray bottle then spray every corner of your house, particularly the door corners and the window rims. If there’s something insects can’t stand, it’s the smell of fresh mint. This natural bug repellent will keep all sorts of insects, as well as rodents, away from your house while providing your home with a fresh- smelling aroma.

A wonderful plant in the struggle against the plagues

The most important role of insects is the one of helping organic matter to decompose. They are also the most important pollinizers of plants that are both ecologically and economically important.

All this aside, insects are not something you’d want to see anywhere near you, especially not in your home.

The Idiosyncratic Crater of the Siberian Wilderness




Ed Stafford, 38, was born in Peterborough and educated at Stoneygate School, Leicester; Uppingham in Rutland; and at Newcastle University. He then earned a position in the prestigious commissioning course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, and was commissioned as a British Army Officer in July 1999.

Ed went on to command platoons in the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment, gaining his Northern Ireland medal in 2000 for his tour of Crossmaglen, South Armagh. Ed’s happiest military years were spent as an instructor at RTC Lichfield where he oversaw several hundred recruits through their basic training, before leaving the military as a captain in 2002.

Ed saw an opportunity to widen his experience when the United States invaded Afghanistan after 9/11. Ed took a position as a UN contractor advising UN electoral workers on planning, logistics and security matters during the first ever presidential elections. Ed managed a team of similar contractors from Herat, in the western region of Afghanistan. During his time there, Ed’s election counting centre was rocketed by terrorists; his airport camp was mortared by improvised explosive devices that narrowly missed his un-armoured office; and the compound he was stationed in was burned to the ground when the warlord Ishmael Kahn was removed from office.

Returning to expeditions, Ed took on a new challenge – setting up extreme cold weather expeditions in Patagonia, Argentina, for the expedition company GVI. Ed was Director of Programmes in Argentina, carrying out scientific research projects and Northern Ice Cap traverses in Chile.

Ed Stafford: Into the Unknown – in which he seeks the truth behind mysterious satellite images of Earth’s most remote locations.

RUSSIA , Siberia


In The Show :



One such site can be found in the desolate, rugged wilderness of Russia’s Siberia region. Here, among the silent forests and eternal cold lies a mysterious crater that has long defied efforts to categorize or label it; a place that was stumbled upon by accident and is the very definition of strange natural wonder.

whatever location we want on a whim, there is the conception that there are no new places to be found that lie beyond our all-seeing eye. However, this was not always the case. There was a time where exploration could uncover new natural wonders right over the next hill, and places remained out in the wild frontiers of the world that managed to elude not only detection, but explanation as well. In some cases, the answers to these mysteries have come no closer to being solved even as we have advanced to the age of satellite mapping. One such site can be found in the desolate, rugged wilderness of Russia’s Siberia region. Here, among the silent forests and eternal cold lies a mysterious crater that has long defied efforts to categorize or label it; a place that was stumbled upon by accident and is the very definition of strange natural wonder.

The bizarre tale starts with an expedition in 1949 into the furthest reaches of Siberia by the geologist, Vadim Kolpakov, who embarked on a mission to draw up a geological map of the region. When he reached the northernmost part of the remote Irkutsk region, Kolpakov was confronted with tales of an “evil” place sequestered away within the woods that the native Yakut people referred to as the “Fire Eagle Nest,” which they warned was so saturated with an evil force that deer and a lot of other wildlife refused to go near it. It was also claimed that anyone who went near this place experienced severe symptoms of nausea, and that some who had ventured there had simply never returned.
Kolpakov was a man of science, and was not so easily dissuaded by the spooky native stories. He ventured on, if anything more curious as to what lie out there in the remote, uncharted forests, spurred on by the tales of mystery and weirdness he was hearing from the locals. He continued his expedition, but even he was not prepared for the bizarre discovery that awaited him out in the wilds. As he climbed up a steep hill, the geologist noted something truly remarkable from a distance; an enormous, convex cone of a crater that that was the size of a 25 story building and featured a funnel shaped recess and a rounded hill in the center. Upon his discovery, Kolpanov said of the sight:
When I first saw the crater I thought that I’d gone crazy because of the heat. And indeed a perfectly shaped mount of a size of a 25-story building with a chopped off top sitting in the middle of the woods was quite an unexpected
The cone was 80 meters tall, 150 meters wide, and had an inner circle dome about 12 meters high. The geologist at first thought that it must be the cone of a volcano, but on closer inspection realized that this was not the case. Besides, there were no known instances of volcanoes in the area for millions of years and the dome sitting in the center was extremely unusual for any sort of volcano. Due to the fact that trees did not grow up on the crater’s slopes, and that wind had not yet settled the soil, Kolpakov estimated the crater’s age as being around 250 years old, an idea that would later be backed up by tests with more modern equipment. The discovery of the strange crater would go on to spark a quest for answers that has baffled experts for decades.
The enormous, bizarre crater was named Patomskiy, after a nearby river, and as soon as it was found, theories as to its origins began to pour in. One of the earliest ideas was that it was merely a slag heap, but it was soon realized that there were not nearly enough people living in the area to create such an immense structure. It was also suggested that it could have been the site of one of Russia’s many notorious gulag labor camps, but this idea was soon abandoned as well. Kolpakov himself speculated that the crater was formed by a meteorite strike, a theory that gained some prominence in later years, but soil samples from the site have failed to produce any evidence of meteorite material, and the unique shape of the crater is not consistent with any other known meteorite crater. The odd shape of the crater is not really consistent with anything we know of, in fact, only adding fuel to the mystery. Others have stuck to the idea that it is volcanic in origin, but again there is no evidence to such an effect, and the area is not known to exhibit any volcanic activity. The idea that it could have been caused by an underground gas explosion also does not carry much weight, as there is no evidence to support it.
Some scientists, most notably the geologist Alexander Portnov, have come to the conclusion that the Patomskiy crater is the result of a piece of rock that perhaps sheared off of the meteor behind the Tunguska explosion, which leveled a large area of forest in the Krasnoyarsk region in 1908. It is surmised that since the Patomiskiy crater lies just west of the infamous Tunguska event, and since its age is estimated to be roughly around the same time, in 1908, and in fact there are some who think this is the actual crater of the Tunguska meteorite, which had previously been believed to have exploded in the atmosphere.
Perhaps inevitably, more far out ideas have cropped up over the years as well. There has been speculation that the crater was the result of a UFO crash or even a nuclear explosion, but there is nothing to strongly suggest that either of these carry any weight. The only shred of light that has been shed on the mysterious crater is the discovery of what is believed to be an incredibly dense object with high iron content lying an estimated 100 to 150 meters below the site, although what this object might be remains a mystery. The object was first discovered in 2006 by an expedition led by doctor of geological-mineralogical sciences Alexander Dmitriev, from Irkutsk State Technical University, and seems to produce magnetic anomalies.
Of course the presence of some super dense object underground has only fueled theories that it must be an alien spacecraft. One scientist, a Igor Simonov, of the Moscow Institute for Problems in Mechanics, conducted a series of experiments at the crater and came to the conclusion that it was formed by a dense, cylindrical object smashing into the earth at high speed. Simonov insisted that the object would have to be made up of an ultra dense material, and when asked about such a material, he gave the cryptic response:
On Earth this material is not available, but somewhere in space it may exist.
Simonov has also put forward the idea that the unusual appearance of the Patomiskiy crater was perhaps caused by the impact of not one object, but two. He concluded that one had hit the ground and exploded, causing a separate object to slow down in response, after which it too crashed into the earth. This would be highly unusual behavior for any known meteorites, but when asked what he thinks the objects could have been, Simonov seemed to shy away from flat out saying they were UFOs, instead giving yet another cryptic answer:
Counting the fact that two meteorites cannot fly one after the other, hitting the same spot I cannot imagine the nature of this strange object. I do not know what it is.
Only adding to the air of enigma enveloping the crater is the fact that analysis of the growth rings of the trees of the vicinity seem to show that they have experienced a period of unusually accelerated growth over four decades after which it reduced to a more normal level, a phenomenon only ever witnessed before in trees of the Chernobyl area after the disaster there. It is unknown what could have caused this odd growth spurt. There is also the presence of a low level of background radiation that is higher than that of the surrounding area and is believed to have once been much higher. No one has been able to figure out just exactly where this radiation could be coming from or why it should be occurring at this one location. There is also a complete lack of any vegetation growth within the crater, despite so much time elapsing since its creation. There is also the crater’s rather odd habit of shifting constantly, rising and falling according to the whims of some as yet misunderstood force.
The mystery of the Patomskiy crater deepened in August of 2005, when an expedition to the crater was launched by an experienced geologist by the name of Eugeny Vorobiev. The expedition started out from the town of Badaybo, and took the only road into the wilderness for 200 km, after which it was necessary to trek overland through perilous wilderness to reach the crater. When the expedition was only a few kilometers from the Patomskiy crater, tragedy struck when Vorobiev suddenly collapsed to the ground for no apparent reason. Colleagues rushed to save the scientist, but he died on the spot. When the body was brought to a hospital in Irkutsk, doctors said that Vorobiev had died of a sudden, massive heart attack, but the death remained somewhat mysterious and local people insisted that it was linked to the evil pervading the region.
What is the Patomskiy crater? Is it some sort of volcano? The result of an underground explosion? Was it created by a meteor strike or a crash landing spacecraft? What lies buried beneath it; a rock or a UFO powered by some sort of nuclear reactor? More than 60 years after its discovery, we still don’t really know for sure. Perhaps in the future further expeditions will come to a better understanding of this strange enigma, but for now it lies out there in the cold Siberian wilderness, a mystery that eludes us and perhaps even pulses within the earth with some inscrutable intent of its own.