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13 Muslim Inventions & Discoveries To Modern The World In Islamic Age

Muslim Scientist And Their 1001 Inventions & Discoveries

1~ Coffee

An Arab named Khalid in kaffa in  southern Ethiopia was one day grazing goats and observed that his goats became more energetic and much livelier than before after some time. After further inspection, he found out that this energetic behavior was because of certain berries that his goat grazed. He later boiled those berries to make the first coffee.

The first historical record of the drink was made when beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen were used by Sufis to stay awake as a sign of religious devotion on special occasions.

By the late 15th century it had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. But it wasn’t until the 16th century that coffee beans came to Europe. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named “Pasqua Rosee” who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.

The Arabic word “qahwa” became the Turkish “kahve” then the Italian “caffé” and then English “coffee”.

2~ Optics

We all know about Ibn-al-Haitham from our primary and secondary school books, as he was a great Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist of the 10th century.

The Greeks used to think that light leaves the eye like a laser, but Ibn-al-Haitham was the first person to realize that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it. He proved that humans see objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eye.

He invented the first pinhole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture.

The word ‘camera’ as we know today is basically derived from the word Qamara, The same qamara we use for our rooms in Urdu, because he made the pinhole camera in a dark room.

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3~ Universitites

A young princess named Fatima Al-Firhi in 859 founded the first degree-granting university in Fez, Morocco.

Fatima and her sister Miriam wanted to expand it that is why they founded an adjacent mosque and together the complex became the “Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University”.

Still operating for almost 1,200 years by now, this should also be noted that the center reflects the core belief that the quest for knowledge is close to the heart of Muslims and is the core of the Islamic tradition.

The story of the Al-Firhi sisters continues to inspire young Muslim women around the world. It also stresses the fact that Islam does not restrict women from acquiring knowledge.

4~ Surgery

Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbad al-Zahrawi”, a man known in the West as Abulcasis, was the first surgeon in human history.

During the 10th century, he wrote “Al-Tadrif”, his medical encyclopedia which included a treatise called “On Surgery”. This held a staggering collection of knowledge which included his scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised.

Those instruments are still in use by modern surgeons today.

All of those illustrations were used in Europe as a medical reference for the next 500 years.

5~ Hospitals

The first Medical Center of its kind, with wards, beds, nurses, etc was the “Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital” (named for the founder of the Tulunid dynasty). It was founded in 872 in Cairo.

Tulun hospital provided free care for anyone who needed it, a policy based on the Muslim tradition of caring for all who are sick. From Cairo, such hospitals spread around the Muslim world.

All patients received free health care, a Muslim tradition which was institutionalized with the advent of the hospital.

Slightly more basic hospitals had existed prior to this in Baghdad. But it was the Cairo model which would later serve as the template for hospitals all around the globe.

6~ Algebra

Students struggling through math classes may not particularly appreciate this Muslim invention but it is one of the most important contributions of the Muslim Golden Age to the modern world.

The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian and Greek in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians Al-Khwarizmi and Al-Kindi around 825.

The word algebra comes from the name of Al Khwarizmi’s book “Al-jabr”, meaning “completion”.

He even solved the real-world problems such as zakat calculation and inheritance division. A unique aspect of his reasoning for developing algebra was the desire to make calculations mandated by Islamic law easier to complete in a world without calculators and computers.

The work of Muslim mathematician scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci.

7~ Windmill

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The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph. Initially electricity wasn’t made from these windmills instead they were used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation.

In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. These mills had 6 or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves.

It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

8~ Vaccinations

As even taught in secondary school books, that the technique of inoculation was invented by Jenner and Pasteur is wrong. It was actually the Muslims who first devised the technique, which was later brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador in 1724.

Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

9~ Rocket and Torpedo

Though the Chinese invented saltpeter gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate and can later be used for military use as a weapon.

Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo, a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

10~ Earth Is a Sphere

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By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. Astronomer Ibn Hazm as a proof said that, “the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth” due to which it must be in sphere shape.

It was 500 years before that realization dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km – less than 200km out.

11~ Fountain pen

On the demand of sultan of Egypt, the fountain pen was invented in 953. As he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes and a pen which didn’t needed an inkpot with it, instead it should carry the ink in its body.

Later a fountain pen was designed. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

12~ Shampoo

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Washing and bathing are religious practice and is a requirement for Muslims to pray, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. Hazrat Saalih (A.S) is known to have invented soap as we know today.

The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil.

Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

13~ Parachute

A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas was the first person to make real attempts to construct a flying machine and fly.

In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts.  He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first “parachute”, and leaving him with only minor injuries.

But his dreams of flying couldn’t let him sleep in peace for which, In 875 at the age of 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. This time he designed a winged apparatus, roughly resembling a bird costume. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for about ten minutes but crashed on landing, later it was concluded that it happened because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.

His designs would undoubtedly have been an inspiration for famed Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci’s hundreds of years later.

Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

Muslims have a big contributions in chemistry known as Al-Chemya

Utopia Of Maldives Best For Tourism | Nayab khan

Maldives

Maldives:

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Maldives the Republic of Maldives is also known as the Maldive Islands, is an island in the Indian Ocean that has 26 atolls. Is a sovereign island country and archipelago. It is located southwest of India and Sri Lanka in the Laccadive Sea.Maldives Islands, which is away from city life and close to the nature. Maldives is another tropical paradise that feels like a dream world. Maldives is a best Tourism Board for the travelers. There are Hundreds of lush islands, lined with the whitest sandy beaches, and surrounded by the clear bluest of water, the Maldives is a heaven of holiday sojourn.

Maldives The Zone Of Island:

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1-Alila Villa Hadahaa:

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The rumor is now officially confirmed: the Resort Alila Villas Hadahaa, located in the extreme south of Maldives, in North Huvadhoo Atoll is, since today, Park Hyatt Maldives !

Open in 2009 by Alila Villas Design Hotel Brand, Hadahaa was the successful combination of contemporary design (a signature feature across the Alila Hotels) and Maldivian architecture. Alila Villas Hadahaa had also won many awards during the first year of operation : in 2010

Today, Alila Villas leaves to her successors a beautiful island with an exquisite charm and a unique architecture among all Resorts of the archipelago. With Hadahaa, Park Hyatt opens its very first Resort in the Maldives.

2-Anantara Kihavah Villas, Maldives:

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Enjoying a prime location in the Maldives’ Baa Atoll island archipelago and on the doorstep of Hanifaru Bay, Anantara Kihavah Villas is the perfect place from which to explore the underwater world of the Indian Ocean. Set on Kihavah Huravalhi, one of the most pristine Maldivian islands, the resort is 30-minute seaplane flight from Male International Airport, an unforgettable experience in itself as the plane flies over a string of glowing coral islands amidst turquoise waters.

79 spacious private pool villas, ranging from 260 to 2,730 square meters, are either poised over the water with sweeping ocean views or nestled along a pristine stretch of private beach.

3-Kuramathi Island Resort:

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Established on Rasdhoo Atoll Kuramathi stretches all along the palm grove right into the turquoise water. Guests can choose to stay at the garden, beach or water villas and relax on a white sandy beach, enjoy infinity pools and outdoor jacuzzi. There are various water activities, excursions to other islands and entertaining evening program.

4-Alimatha Island, Vaavu Atoll, Maldives:

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Alimatha Aquatic Resort is located in Alimatha island in Vaavu Atoll. The island sits on the eastern edge of Maldives, 3°35’39.1″ North  of the equator and 73°29’55.5″ East. The transfer to Alimatha  takes 20 minutes by seaplane or about 90 minutes by speedboat from Ibrahim Nasir International airport.
Alimatha is the perfect Maldives resort to experience world class diving for both beginners and professionals. TGI Maldives Alimatha Diving Center has been operational since 2006.

5-Sun Island Resort and Spa:

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Sun Island set in the magnificent island of Nalaguraidhoo, will capture your heart with its exotic tropical flowers and beautiful greenery in the gardens that takes you to the purest of stunning blue sapphire lagoons. Located 62 miles from the male’ airport, Nalaguraidhoo is the most breathtaking and picturesque island in South Ari Atoll. Sun Island, has been noted for its beautiful setting.

Sun Island Resort is the biggest resort/island hotel in Maldives and offers you all the modern comforts, conveniences and facilities that you can ever think of. It is a mature island with dense tropical vegetation and tall coconut palms, numerals enough that you could loose your self amongst them. With wide beaches of fine white sands all around the island, there is no difficulty in finding your own private little cove for the day.

6-Dusit Thani:

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Situated on Mudhdhoo Island in Baa Atoll, the resort was inspired by Thai style and philosophy. Luxurious private villas, tennis courts, SPA centers and even boutiques can be found here. The resort is surrounded with the richest marine life in Maldives. Therefore it is the best place to go diving and snorkeling.

7-Six Senses Laamu:

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The only resort in the Laamu Atoll, which is only 150 km from the equator, Six Senses is environmentally responsible and contemporary. Its rustic luxury villas blend so well with the nature and do not disturb atoll’s vibes. Villas have glass see-through tables, that reconnect with the Ocean.

8-Banana Reef, North Male Atoll, Maldives:

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his banana shaper reef belongs to the marine protected areas of north male and has excellent coral reef with very abundant fish life. It lies inside Kuda Kalhi and was one of the very first dive sites of maldives. Close to Club Med resort there are always divers here. Big rocks get to amazing coral formations where sharks, barracuda, traveally and black snapper. On the east side there are alwasy big schools of bannerfish. There are also some caves where groupers and seafans can be found. The last one, at 20m there is a small concave wall where a washing machine is formed with strong currents. Grey reef sharks can be seen there. If you get caught by the washing machine don’t try to fight it, and ride it staying close to the reef until you can get out.

9-National Museum:

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Located at Male, the number seven spot is the National Musuem of Maldives. The building houses a lot of different kinds of historical artifacts that reflect the history of the country. The original museum was the old 3-story museum that is the only remaining part of the Maldivian Royal Palace. The new museum is built and designed by the Chinese Government, and is where eventually the artifacts from the old museum would move to. It was declared as the official National Museum on July 26, 2010. If you want to know more about Maldivian artifacts and the rich story behind each, this is the perfect place to go.

10-Hukuru Miskiiy Mosque, Kaafu Atoll, Maldives:

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Hukuru Miskiy or Old Friday Mosque is an ancient decorated mosque located in the city of Malé, Kaafu Atoll, Maldives. The mosque was originally constructed in 1658 under the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I over two-year time. It’s a beautiful structure made from coral stone into which intricate decoration and Quranic script have been chiseled. The mosque was built on the foundations of an old temple that faced west towards the setting sun, not northwest towards Mecca. Consequently, the worshippers have to face the corner of the mosque when they pray – the striped carpet, laid at an angle, shows the correct direction.

Collected And Prepared By Nayab Khan